Updating international standards for pharmaceutical waters
Ultra filtration (UF) is a cross-flow process similar to reverse osmosis.
The membrane rejects particulates, organics, microbes, pyrogens and other contaminants that are too large to pass through the membrane Reverse osmosis Reverse osmosis is the most refined degree of liquid filtration.
Effluent Guidelines are national regulatory standards for wastewater discharged to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants.
EPA issues these regulations for industrial categories, based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.
Suspended or dissolved particles, organic compounds, impurities and other contaminants prohibit the usage of tap water in laboratory applications and scientific research.
Parameters such as resistivity, conductivity, size of particulate matter and concentration of microorganisms are used to categorize water quality and, therefore, specify intended uses for water.
Water must be distilled and then stored for later use, making it again prone to contamination if not stored properly Ultraviolet radiation At a particular wavelength, this might cause bacteria to be sterilized and other micro organics to be broken down.
Radiation at shorter wavelengths (185 nm) is effective for the oxidation of organics.UV radiation at 185 nm is a highly effective photo-oxidant and a key component in producing purified water with the lowest levels of organic contaminants Deionization It is also known as ion exchange, it is used for producing purified water on-demand, by passing water through resin beds.Negatively charged (cationic) resin removes positive ions, while positively charged one (anionic) removes negative ions.In today’s pharmaceutical facilities the availability of purified water is essential.While the domestic consumer considers tap water to be pure the pharmaceutical end-user regards it as grossly contaminated.