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The more primitive, notes The Independent, is that the Tainos dragged their fingers along the walls, a removing a layer of calcite to expose lighter rock.
Another method involved using bat excrement, which had turned yellow, brown, and red from minerals absorbed from the cave floor.
The description in the display case at Heritage Village proposes that it was side-blown, like a transverse flute, and that the player changed pitch by cupping the end of the flute with one hand. The earliest North American cane flute comes the Upper Mammoth Cave site in present-day Kentucky ([Carstens 2004]).While approaches to studying the development of flutes in Europe and Asia and in Central and South America have been largely focused on the archaeological record, there is considerable debate as to whether that approach is appropriate (or even useful) for North American flutes.In particular, the apparently sudden appearance of the Native American flutes in the historical record in the early 19th century raises questions of the influences that brought about this wonderful instrument.Some plant resin is evident in the paint too, helping it stick to the walls, while others simply used charcoal.The Tainos were ultimately wiped out by disease, famine, and war as a result of Spanish colonization.