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Following the death of the father, his estate passed to the youngest son of the most senior wife.

Temujin, who would later be renamed Chinggis Khan, was born into the Kiyat lineage of the Borjigin clan.

Much weakened, the Mongols were finally crushed by the Chin, who had formed an alliance with the Tatars, in 1161.

The Mongols were forced to pay tribute to the Chin and became increasingly poor.

Some Mongol clans became vassals to the Tatars or else allied themselves to the Kereyit.

The only independent Mongols remaining consisted of just two clans: the Tayichi'ut and the Borjigin.

Just after 970 the original Mongol tribe moved westwards from the Ergön River and Kölen Na'ur lake to the foothills of Burqan-qaldun Mountain close to the headwaters of the Onon, Kelüren, and Tu'ula rivers (as a result of which they are sometimes referred to as the Three River Mongols).

"The Secret History" records that the Mongols fought 13 unsuccessful battles against the Tatars, which led to internal Mongol divisions and finally a civil war.Other important Mongol groups in the region included the Onggirats, who lived close to the Tatar in the Qalka river region in the extreme east of Mongolia, and the Oyirat or Dörben Oirad ("Allied Four"), a group of four forest tribes located to the west of Lake Baikal.Further afield lived the Qyrgyz or Kyrgyz, a Turkish tribe in the upper Yenisey; the Uighurs, Turkish nomads and settlers north-east of the Tarim Basin; the Ongut, or Önggüd, Turkish nomads living south of the Gobi desert; and finally the Solang, a Tungusic tribe living in the northern part of Manchuria.However tribal alliances were fickle and were frequently realigned.Some tribes were even divided between two confederations, in effect hedging their bets.

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