Cross validating a bidimensional mathematics anxiety scale
Studies have shown moderate correlations between TA and MA (between .30 and .50), so they are indeed related constructs; however, measures of MA correlate more highly with one another (between .50 to .80) than with TA, which suggests that MA is a distinct construct [2,18,19].
Of all of the negative effects that MA has on learning and using mathematics, the relationship between MA and mathematics performance has received the most attention.
MA can develop in the early school years [5,7] and becomes increasingly common with age [8,9].
It is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population [2,10,11] and adults in post-secondary education .
These results might suggest that girls may have had the potential to perform better than boys in mathematics however their performance may have been attenuated by their higher levels of MA.
Longitudinal research is needed to investigate the development of MA and its effect on mathematics performance.
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As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on ‘online’ mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education.However, it has been argued that mathematics achievement, when measured in test situations, is always confounded with MA [2,25].That is, the mathematics performance of highly mathematics anxious individuals is impaired because of their “online emotional reaction to the testing situation” [2, p. Consequently, the mathematics performance of an individual with high MA may appear lower than it actually is, when measured using a test.Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires.No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys.