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Then, in 1919 it was captured by the forces of Soviet Russia and incorporated into the Byelorussian SSR.Up to World War II and the Holocaust, like many other cities in Europe, Mogilev had a significant Jewish population: according to the Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 41,100, 21,500 were Jews (i.e. Mogilev became the official residence of High SS and police leader (HSSPF) Erich von dem Bach.Also, several major factories of cranes, cars, tractors and a chemical plant were established.By the 1950s, tanning was its principal industry, and it was a major trading centre for cereal, leather, salt, sugar, fish, timber and flint: the city has been home to a major inland port on the Dnieper river since (year/period) and a airport since.During that period, the Jews of Mogilev were ghettoized and systematically murdered by Ordnungspolizei and SS personnel.Heinrich Himmler personally witnessed the executions of 279 Jews on 23 October 1941.At Polykovichi, an urban part of Mogilev, there is a 350 metre tall guyed TV mast, one of the tallest structures in Belarus.
In 1577 Polish-Lithuanian King Stefan Batory granted it city rights under Magdeburg law.Another important landmark of Mogilev is the six-pillared St.Stanisław's Cathedral, built in the Baroque style between 17 and distinguished by its frescoes. Nicholas preserves its magnificent cathedral of 1668, as well as the original iconostasis, bell tower, walls, and gates.Since Belarus gained its independence in 1991 Mogilev has remained one of its principal cities.Mohilev was the episcopal see of the Latin Catholic Archdiocese of Mohilev until its 1991 merger into the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Minsk-Mohilev.