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made the distillation of neutral spirits practical, thus enabling the creation of the "London dry" style that evolved later in the 19th century.
In tropical British colonies gin was used to mask the bitter flavour of quinine, which was the only effective anti-malarial compound.
Similar infusions are possible with other fruits, such as damsons The name gin is a shortened form of the older English word genever, related to the French word genièvre and the Dutch word jenever.
All ultimately derive from juniperus, the Latin for juniper.
In London in the early 18th century, much gin was distilled legally in residential houses (there were estimated to be 1,500 residential stills in 1726) and was often flavoured with turpentine to generate resinous woody notes in addition to the juniper.
Another common variation was to distill in the presence of sulphuric acid.
Of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London, not including coffee shops and drinking chocolate shops, over half were gin shops.
68% ABV), and then redistilling it with botanicals to extract the aromatic compounds.
It must be bottled at a minimum of 30% Alcohol by volume (ABV).
Quinine was dissolved in carbonated water to form tonic water; the resulting cocktail is gin and tonic, although modern tonic water contains only a trace of quinine as a flavouring.
Gin is a common base spirit for many mixed drinks, including the martini.